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The Twelve GodsThe ruins of Hattusa, the capital of the Hittite state, are situated overlying a terrace and a huge crag rising above the present-day village known either as Boğazköy or Boğazkale. Hattusa is derived from Hattus, the original name given to it by the Hattic people. On capturing the city, the Hittites (P. 7 ff.) continued to use the name, except that by adding the suffix "a" or sometimes "as", they turned it into the Hittite adaptation "Hattusa" or "Hattusas". The oldest Hittite document discovered at Boğazköy reveals that Hattusa was devastated at the beginning of the 18th century B. C. by Anitta of Kussara (P. 7), who is understood to have been the greatest Hittite king during the time of the city states. The document also states that he put a curse on the city in the following words : "Whoever shall be king after me, if he re-settles Hattusa, he shall be struck by the Storm God". However, the fact remains that the Hittites re-inhabited Hattus shortly after Anitta's death, as is proved by a letter of the Hammurabi period, discovered at Mari, in Syria, during the excavations of the French archaeologist, André Parrot, in which Hattus is referred to by its Hittite name, "Hattusa". This evidence reveals that the city had become Hittite by 1700 B. C. at the latest.

North of the Great Temple (plan of Boğazköy, No. 1), the German expedition, now carrying out excavations at Hattusa, recently unearthed the remains of buildings and small works of art belonging to the Karum Hattus settlement, which occurred in the final phase of the Hattic era of the city, One of the Assyrian colonies called "Karum" in ancient written sources existed at Hattusa in this phase covering the 19th and 18th centuries B. C. (see p. 7).

South wallThroughout Hittite history, both during the Old Kingdom period (1750-1450) and that of the Empire (1450-1180), Hattusa was the capital city. The first city wall around Hattusa is thought to have been built by King Hantili I about the beginning of the 16th century, In spite of this fortification, the Kaska people destroyed and sacked the city about a century later in the reign of Tudhaliya III, Nevertheless, it is understood that, within a short time, the city and its defenses were rebuilt. The old city occupies the area between the Great Temple and the Great Citadel, and was the scene of settlement in the Hattic age (pp., 5, 7), the City State period (2000-1750), and the time of the Old Kingdom (1750-1450). On the other hand, the upper city, rising up south of the sally ports (see Plan of Boğazköy), came into being in the Empire Period ( 1450 - 1180 B. C.). The city wall, which is very well-preserved in - some places, stretches for a total of 6 km. (see plan of Boğazköy). The Hittite state came to an end with the devastation of Hattusa by Thracian tribes in 1180 B. C. (p- 12).

LionsgateThe excavation of Hattusa first began in 1906, under the direction of Hugo Winckler and Theodor Makridi. These two archaeologists were joined in the following year by Otto Puchstein, and their work continued until 1912. A great sensation was caused by the discovery during these excavations of tablets bearing cuneiform writing in the Great Temple. The tablets could be read, since cuneiform writing was already known, but the deciphering of the Hittite language took a long time. After some unsuccessful attempts by various scholars, the riddle of the Hittite tongue was finally solved by the Czech linguist, F. Hrozny, in 191.S. The excavations were recommenced after the First World War in 1931 with Kurt Bittel in charge and, disregarding the interruption caused by the Second World War, have continued successfully up to the present day.

Those important places worth visiting are listed here in the order in which they should be seen : Yazılıkaya (see plan of temple at Yazılıkaya and following), the Great Temple (plan of temples, temple of Hatti), the Great Citadel (see plan of Büyükkale), the King's Gate (plan of Boğazköy, No. 6), the Sphinx Gate (plan of Boğazköy, No. 11), the Tunnel and the city wall in the vicinity of the Sphinx Gate (see picture of wall), temples 2-4 north of the Sphinx Gate, the Lion Gate (plan of Boğazköy, No. 12), and the local museum. Those who intend spending just one day at Hattusa are advised to visit Yazılıkaya before proceeding to the city, because the reliefs at Yazılıkaya only receive direct sunlight between 11 a.m., and 1 p. m.; after this time they are not distinctly visible.