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Boğazkale (Boğazköy / Hattuşaş)


Plan of Boğazköy (Hattusa)

1) Settlement dating from the Karum Hattus period (19th-18th centuries B. C.).
2) The Temple of the Weather God of Hatti and the Sun Goddess of Arinno.
3) Büyükkale (the Great Citadel), the acropolis of Hattusa (see plan of Büyükkale).
4) The Southern Citadel, probably one of the most important fortresses of the 13th century B. C., not yet excavated.
5) Nişantepe (Target Hill), with remains of a once imposing Hittite castle dating from the 13th century B. C. On the west side of the modern road can be seen an 8.50 m long hieroglyphic inscription carved in the rock. This is badly weathered, but, starting in the top right-hand corner, reference is made to "the Great King Suppituliuma, son of the Great King Tudhaliya and grandson of the Great King Hattusili". Since the two Hittite kings called Suppiluliuma happen to have had the same genealogy, we are not in a position to determine which is meant here.
6) King's Gate (beginning of the 14th century B. C.). The high relief originally adorning the west face of the north door jamb of the entrance overlooking the interior of the city is now kept in the Ankara Archaeological Museum. On the site, the original work is now replaced by a concrete cost. The attractive outer face of the King's Gate is relatively well-preserved. The door jambs were made up largely of tall andesite monoliths forming the pointed arch characteristic of Hittite architecture. The city wall is built in Cyclopean masonry with huge, roughly worked stone blocks. The height of the stone wall was about 6 m., and this was overlaid with sun-dried brick.
7-10) Temples dating from the 13th century B. C., constructed according to the classic type. of Hittite sanctuary (see plan of temples, picture of temple of Hatti) with a central courtyard and an adyton containing the cult statue.
11) Yer Kapı, the Sphinx Gate (see picture below).
12) Lion Gate (beginning of the 14th century). Constructed like the King's Gate in the form of a pointed arch, the upper part of which is now lost. The outer (western) fronts of the door jambs are each adorned with the head and fore-quarters of a lion. The animal on the right-hand side, almost intact, is a valuable example of large-scale Hittite sculpture. Like the apotropaic dogs mentioned in Hittite texts, these lions, with their threatening open mouths, were intended to word off evil spirits.
13) Yenice Kale (the New Castle), showing well-preserved Hittite walls, dating from about the 13th century BC.
14) Sarı Kale (the Yellow Castle). Beautifully laid Hittite walls going back to the 13th century B. C. are also in evidence here. The other walls in the same castle are built of small stones, showing the remains of repair-work carried out in Phrygian times.

yerkapi.jpg (7641 bytes)Boğazköy, Yer Kapı, i.e., the central Portion of the southern fortifications, with the Sphinx Gate and the big pastern (beginning of the 14th century B. C.). On the east and west, the city was naturally defended by steep slopes which are absent in the centre of the south side. Therefore, the Hittite architects constructed a strong bulwark for offensive sorties in this weak section. The 70 m. - long pastern beneath the Sphinx Gate served as a sally port against the enemy. The outer door of this subterranean tunnel, built on the corbel system and employing huge Cyclopean stone blocks, is visible in the centre of the picture. When this section of the defense works was in danger, Hittite warriors used this tunnel and descended the two steep stairways on both sides of the gateway in order to attack the enemy from the rear. One of the towers stood on the axis of the pastern, flanked by sphinxes on the inner side. Three of these sphinxes were found during the excavations. Of the two sphinxes formerly adorning the gateway on the city side, one is now in Berlin, the other in Istanbul. Parts of the third sphinx are still observable in situ.